Ok, maybe neuromorphic chips aren’t a deadend

Those of you who followe my blog will no doubt recall that I pronounced neuromorphic chips dead (see our Are neuromorphic chips a deadend blog post). Not because the hardware technology wasn’t improving or good enough, but because software support for the technology was sorely lacking and it was extremely complex or nigh impossible to program and use.

And, in the meantime GPUs, TPUs and other more “normal” neural network hardware and accelerators, all were able to utilize standard, easy to use, mostly open source, AI DL frameworks. And all this hardware was steadily improving, coming out regularly with more power and performance, with no end in sight.

But then I attended AIFD1 (AI Field Day 1) and at one of the sessions, Anil Mankar, COO & Co-Founder of a company named BrainChip Inc, (see video of their talk) presented yet another neuromorphic chip, called the AKIDA Neural Processor. Their current generation of the technology is available in their AKD 1000 SoC chip, focused on IoT solutions. But they had created a a software development environment that allowed one to use standard TensorFlow neural network trained models and deploy these on their hardware. And that got my interest.

BrainChip’s AKIDA AKD 1000 hardware AND software

Their AI DL nueromoryhic chip is made app of Event Domain Neural Processing Units (NPUs). AKIDA technology is focused on low power, sensor like applications. They claim to save power by only consumuing power (or is running) when an event takes place. They are also able to save on memory requirements by using 1, 2 or 4 bits (vs. 8, 16, 32 or more bits) for model weights/activations

Their hardware seems to run spiking neural networks (SNN, see our blog post on another chip technology using SNNs). In their SDK, they have a CNN2SNN tool that could take a any (TensorFlow) trained CNN model and convert it to a SNN, that could then run on their AKIDA tecnology.

They also have an AKIDA Model Zoo with a handful of pre-trained CNN type models that have already been converted to run on their technology. They also provide a tutorial on their technology. Mankar, said that if you understand how to use TensorFlow Keras today, to construct and train your models, it shouldn’t be too hard to understand how to use their tools to do what you want.

Their chip hardware is available today on a separate PCIe card, M.2 form factor card. or as a chip. Finally, they also license their AKIDA IP to other chip designers.

AKIDA AKD 1000 performance

At the AIFD1 Mankar showed statistics on the performance and accuracy attained using their chip vs. using standard 32 bit floating point CNN implementations.

As discussed above, their processor uses 1-4 bits for weight quantization and as such loses some accuracy but as you can see it’s a matter of one to a few percent vs. these same models using a 32bit floating point CNN implementation.

Because of their smaller weights, AKIDA uses less memory and less bandwidth to update models vs. models using larger weights.

As shown in the chart the the memory required for the 8-bit deep learning algorithms (DLAs) were all significantly larger than the memory requirements for the AKIDA solution. For one algorithm, they required ~1/2 the memory size of the 8-bit DLA version of the model.

Mankar also provided information on the amount of calculations required per inference using AKIDA vs. 8-bit DLAs.

Just to set the stage, MMACs/Inference is (matrix or multiple) multiplications and accumulations required to perform a single inference with the selected CNN model. ImageNet (1000), ImageNette (20) and Visual Wake Word models are all standard CNN models, that have pre-trained on vast repositories of data, that can run in many hardware environments. The non-AKIDA solutions above were all running using an 8-bit DLA CNN model. Activity regularization is a method of reducing the learning rate and weights used during training that shrinks the weight changes during training to reduce model overfit.

He also showed some comparisons of their technology vs. Intel’s LoiHi hardware. LoiHi is another neuromorphic chip, whose original introduction prompted me to write the “Are neuromorphic chips a deadend” post (link above). Unfortunately, I didn’t capture any of these charts, but from my recollection, they showed that AKIDA technology used slightly less power than LoiHi technology in all their comparisons.

AKIDA technology demo

In their live, on camera, demo, they used a previously downloaded VGG16 (if I recall correctly) CNN trained model. Offline they had replaced the last classification layer with a (blank, untrained) dense network and they converted this to a SNN and downloaded onto one of their boards. They had developed an application that used this board with a camera to perform more CNN training or CNN image inferencing (classification).

They first (one-shot) trained their board’s model to recognize the background of what the camera was seeing and then proceeded to perform (one-shot) trainings to classify toys of tigers, elephants and cars. All these were completed in real time in the demo. They were able to verify the training took using pictures of tigers, elephants and cars as well as classify all the toys in different orientations and a different toy car

The AIFD1 (a tuff) crowd, said had seen all this before but would be really interested to see if their chip could distinguish between different cars (one a toy race car and the other a toy police car). On camera, they were able to re-train their CNN to distinguish between (toy) car 1 and car 2 to classify properly between the two of them. They had one or two instances where their CNN model was confused, but they were able to re-train it to recognize the toy car and place it into the correct classification (using two-shot[?] learning).

At AIFD1, Mankar also presented detailed, real world data on how they were able to perform Keyword spotting, person detection, E-nose classification, E-tongue classification, and auditory (E-ear?) classification in embedded sensor systems.

AKIDA technology limitations

At the moment, their chip doesn’t support neural networks that use memory such as LSTM or RNN’s but it seems to work fine for any CNN, which was shown multiple times in the data they presented and in their demo.

We were really impressed with their software stack, liked what we saw of their hardware/IP, and enjoyed their demo and its one-shot learning. Check out their videos (link above) for more information on them.

Photo Credit(s): all charts are from BrainChip Inc’s website or were presented at their AIFD1 session

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